Wood and paper packaging for food.
Wooden packaging, although they are among the oldest packages, is still used quite often. Wooden packaging is characterized by high mechanical strength. These include boxes and cages, mostly made of pine wood. They are used to pack eggs, fruit, vegetables, fish, glasses, machines, mechanical equipment, etc.. Airtight barrels made of beech or oak wood, no knots, cracks and gaps, they are used to store and transport liquid and semi-liquid products. Semi-sealed barrels are used to store loose products, greasy. They are most often made of fir and birch wood. The baskets are used for packing berries and mushrooms. 4 are a unit package.
Currently, due to the deficit of wood, wooden packaging is increasingly being replaced by plastic packaging.
Paper and cardboard packaging are used quite commonly in the food industry. They can be easily adapted to mechanical dispensers and packing machines and can be stored and transported in the form of complex blanks. However, they are permeable and sensitive to fats and water. Packaging made of laminated cardboard are also produced (np. cardboard covered with polyethylene; polyethylene ensures vapor tightness and the possibility of welding).
Cellophane is a type of paper packaging, made of regenerated cellulose. Cellophane itself is steam- and gas permeable and not suitable for welding, however, covered with a polyvinyl coating, it is vapor-tight and can be hot-joined. Paper packaging is made of strong wrapping papers (handbags, paper bags). Parchment paper is used for packing anti-corrosive preserved metal products, as they are impermeable to moisture and resistant to fats.
Cardboard boxes are made of corrugated cardboard, and cardboard boxes made of cardboard of various kinds. Goods are packed into cardboard boxes 40 kg. Corrugated cardboard has shock-absorbing properties.
Paper bags are made of 3-6 layers of strong paper. In order to protect against moisture, individual layers are covered with plastic foil or parchment. Paraffinated cups are also made of paper (np. for artificial honey, cottage cheese) and cartridges for packing eggs.
Plastic packaging are now widely used. Their advantages contribute to this, such as: aesthetic appearance, transparency, ease of dyeing, smoothness of the surface, lightness, mechanical resistance, resistance to atmospheric and chemical factors, to mold and insects, easy to form and process, resistance to gas and liquid penetration. Plastic packaging is divided into thin-walled ones (barrels, balloons, boxes, cans, jars, bottles etc.), thick-walled (closure, caps, traffic jams), foam, used in the manufacture of boxes and cassettes for shock-sensitive articles, and foils (bags and handbags).
Polyethylene is the most widely used for packing frozen food, especially high pressure, with excellent vapor tightness, temperature resistant up to approx. — 60°C, resistant to acids and bases and odorless. Polyethylene film - quite stretchy - is used for packing meat and poultry. Turnover of packages. Disposable packaging is sold together with the goods. Reusable packaging may be non-returnable, remaining with the recipient, and feedback, which the recipient must return to the supplier. Proper handling of returnable packaging is of great economic importance.