Glass packaging for food.
Glass packaging has many advantages: are hygienic, transparent, are impermeable to gases and liquids, are chemically resistant, non-absorbent and odorless. The disadvantages of glass packaging are: high weight and low mechanical resistance. The glass of packaging should be optically homogeneous, without any traces of spattering or open bubbles, and also it should not contain unmelted grains of sand and other impurities, affecting its mechanical and thermal resistance.
The tinted glass protects the contents against the harmful effects of sunlight and gives the packaging an aesthetic appearance.
Glass containers include jars, bottles, balloons, vials etc.. Glass jars are unit packages with the most common capacity 0,1 – 1 kg. They usually have a circular cross-section, sometimes polygonal or elliptical. In the food and catering industry, the type of closure of these packages is important, because in many cases they are used for appertized canning. The jars are most often closed with a tin lid (steel or aluminum) with the appropriate gasket, usually permanently attached to the lid, and sometimes with a strip holding down the lid. Closing consists in tightening or pressing the lid. Closures used in the domestic industry enable the packaging to be closed under reduced pressure. Twist Off jars can be closed mechanically under reduced pressure and opened without the use of special openers. The advantage of the jars is that they can be used many times. The disadvantage is the high weight, which increases the cost of transport. Glass jars are used for various types of canning, pickles, honey, jams etc..
Glass bottles are made of colorless glass, semi-white, brown or green. Depending on the purpose, bottles are distinguished: for spirit and pure vodkas, for quality vodkas and liqueurs, for beer, for sparkling and still wines, for mineral waters and carbonated drinks, for juices and preserved products, into the milk, for dairy products, for oils etc.. The capacity of the bottles is the most common 0,25 – 1 liter. The shape and dimensions of the bottles and the quality of the glass intended for their production, as well as the quality of the finished bottles, like for example. their unit mass, resistance to internal pressure of bottles for carbonated and sparkling drinks, set the relevant standards. Glass balloons are vessels with a capacity 5 -25 liters closed with corks or rubber caps. They are stored in wicker baskets or in wooden racks. Balloons are used for the storage and transport of musts fixed by pasteurization, acetic acid, purees, aromatic condensates, etc..