Food packaging

Food packaging.

The packages are designed to protect products against mechanical damage, chemicals, etc.. during storage and transport from the manufacturer to the user. They very often play the role of the unit of measurement. The following types of packaging are distinguished:

• Due to its essential function, which the packaging meets in relation to the food product - direct (unitary), transport and auxiliary.

• Due to the material, the main elements of the packaging are made of - metal, glass, wooden, paper, made of plastics.

• Due to the shape of the packaging - bubbles, barrels, slowly, bottles, parsley, vials, kanistry, conservators, cages, baskets, boxes, cans, boxes, jars, bags, tubes, buckets, bags.

• Due to the packaging turnover - disposable and reusable.

Direct packaging (unitary) it contains a quantity of the product which is sold directly to the consumer in retail. It does not provide sufficient protection of the product against external factors during transport or storage. Unit packages have basic marking, auxiliary, manipulative and advertising. Essential marks are used to identify the product and the manufacturer (Product name, trademark and intended use of the product). Auxiliary characters define the type, species, class, product quality, its composition, net content, the price, production date, shelf life, method of use, standard number, quality control symbol, packer plant mark and quality mark.

Drawing. Quality marks of high and the highest world quality level.

The handling symbols indicate the way to handle the product, np. protect from heat (cold), protect against moisture, opening place, etc.. Advertising signs are designed to encourage the purchase of a given product. Unit package marks may be printed, fired, embossed and lithographed. Jars are examples of unit packets, cans, cups, plastic bags, boxes, handbags etc..

The transport packaging provides protection against damage during transport and storage. Transport packaging is marked with conventional symbols placed on the outside of the packaging. The designation consists of the main characters, auxiliary and handling. The essential characters define the packaging and the direction of shipment (transaction sign, recipient's mark, destination, the number of packaging units in the lot and its sequential number). Auxiliary signs indicate the net and gross weight of the package, dimensions and sender. The handling signs indicate the way of handling the packaging during transport and storage. Some of these signs are shown in the figure.

Drawing. Manipulation signs used for transport packaging: a) protect against cold, b) carefully fragile, c) protect against moisture, d) protect from heat, e) top, do not tip over, f) center of gravity, g) airtight packaging, h) perishable products.

Examples of shipping packaging are: chests, barrels, bags, containers etc..

Auxiliary packaging is used for additional protection of the product. These are cushioning and sealing materials, np. corrugated cardboard, egg containers, straw, Wood "wool", polystyrene, etc..

The purpose of the packaging is to protect food against qualitative and quantitative losses due to biological factors, chemical and mechanical, facilitating turnover, transport and storage. In many cases, the packaging facilitates transport and increases the advertising value of the goods, its aesthetic qualities, hygienic, as well as the convenience of using the product. At the same time, it is a common desire, that the packaging does not significantly affect the price of the product it contains.

Protective function of food packaging

Food packaging must meet very strict sanitary regulations. When choosing a packaging, you should first of all take into account its protective functions, commercial considerations should come second.

Food packaging should:

• do not let water vapor pass through, atmospheric oxygen and volatile fragrances;

• exhibit resistance to such food ingredients, like water, fats and organic acids;

• protect against secondary microbial infections, against the effects of plant and animal pests, dust and dirt;

• be chemically indifferent, taste and smell;

• Maintain such essential properties over a wide temperature range, like mechanical strength, tightness, flexibility and non-adhesion to food products;

• provide formability, portioning and packing in mechanical devices.

In practice, these packaging features are particularly important, which prevent the products stored in them from drying out, oxidation and the release and absorption of odors.