Machines and equipment for grinding raw materials and food products

Machines and equipment for grinding raw materials and food products.

Mechanical grinding operations are another, after washing and cleaning, the stage of processing raw materials and food products. Among these operations as basic should be mentioned: countrymanship, jerking, rubbing, crease, grinding, splitting and chafing.

Fruits are among the raw materials and food products subjected to grinding operations, vegetables, meat and fish, cold cuts, cheeses, bread and dry products, like coffee, Spices, suchary, sugar, etc..

Machines for grinding vegetables and fruit.

Potato grinding, vegetables and fruits consists in cutting them, my mind, hollowing out and chafing. These operations can be performed manually or with the aid of machines.

Cutting machines and rubbing machines are used to crush vegetables and fruits. Cutting machines shred the raw materials prior to heat treatment (sometimes and after heat treatment), and rubbing machines - crush heat-treated products to a pulp or puree soft fruits and vegetables, np. berries, tomatoes.

Cutting machines. Either the cutting unit can rotate in these machines (the raw material is pressed down), or raw material (the cutting unit is stationary).

The working element of devices with a rotating cutting unit is a shredding disc with straight or sickle knives of various profiles and often adjustable clearance, through which the cut off raw material particles pass to the discharge chute. Examples of the different types of targets are shown in the figure.

Drawing. Shredding discs (cutting)

They are the basic equipment of gastronomic slicing machines or attachments for slicing in various types of robots and universal gastronomic machines.. Depending on the design of the knives on the working discs, different particles of cut raw materials and products can be obtained. The easiest way is to cut into slices; the thickness of the slices depends on the angle of inclination of the adjustable knives. Discs with sickle knives are used for this purpose (a i b) and discs with straight knives (Lynx. c). The pulp disc is shown in Fig. d, for fine shavings - fig. e, for thin strips - fig. f, for bars with dimensions 5 mm x 5 mm rys. g, for French fries measuring 9×9 mm — rys. h. French fries and bar knives have a blade positioned in planes parallel and perpendicular to the blade (mutually perpendicular). The position of the discs with knives in various types of disc slicers can be horizontal or vertical.

Drawing. Diagram of a disc slicer for fruits and vegetables: a) with a horizontal target, b) with vertical target

Shield with knives 1 it is mounted on a rotating drive shaft 2. There is a loading funnel above the disc 3 so shaped, that the shredded raw material is spontaneously pressed against the disc with knives. There is a discharge chute below the disc 4, to which the shredded raw material falls.

The working element of devices with rotating raw material is a stationary grinding cylinder with appropriately profiled and sharpened planing or cutting edges and a movable rotor making the raw material rotate and pressing it against the inner edges of the grinding cylinder.

Drawing. Rotors and working cylinders of machines and attachments for grinding and grinding raw and cooked potatoes, fruit, vegetables, cottage cheese, etc.: a) rubbing cylinder (puree) with rotor, b) chip planing cylinder 1,5 mm with rotor, c) strips planing cylinder 6-1 1 mm with rotor.

The severed particles press through the slots of the cylinder to the outside. If the raw material is to be chafed, the cylinder has holes up to 1 mm. Elements of this type are the basic equipment of self-propelled slicing machines and (most often) attachments for cutting and grinding in universal gastronomic machines.